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Regio II - Insula IV - Terme di Nettuno (II,IV,2)

To the east of the theatre are very large baths (c. 67 x 67 metres), today known as the Baths of Neptune. The building was excavated by Lanciani in 1888 and Vaglieri in 1909 and 1910. Unfortunately it has not been the subject of a monograph. It is famous because of its Antonine black-and-white floor mosaics. The complex replaced baths from the late first century AD, and was financed by Hadrian with two million sesterces, and by Antoninus Pius with additional money and marble, witness the following inscription:

IMP(erator) CAES(ar) DIVI HADRIANI FIL(ius) DIVI TRAIANI PARTHICI NEP(os) DIVI N[ervae]
PRONEPOS T(itus) AELIVS HADRIANVS ANTONINVS AVG(ustus) PIVS PONTIF(ex) MAX(imus) TRIB(unicia) POTES[tat(e) II co(n)s(ul)]
THERMAS IN QVARVM EXSTRUCTIONEM DIVOS PATER SVVS HS XX (viginties centena milia) POLLIC[itus erat]
ADIECTA PECVNIA QVANTO AMPLIVVS DESIDERABATVR ITEM MARMORIBVS AD OMNEM C[ultum fecit]

We learn that the baths were inaugurated in 139 AD.

The building was damaged by fire during the reign of Marcus Aurelius, and repaired by a P. Lucilius Gamala: ... thermas quas divus Pius aedificaverat vi ignis consumptas refecit porticum reparavit. Further modifications took place in the last decade of the third and in the fourth century. In a late ancient historical text (Historia Augusta) the baths are referred to as lavacrum Ostiense.



Plan of the baths. After SO I.

The building was entered from the east, through vestibule 1. To the south is a large latrine (2), with a mosaic with a Nilotic scene. At one end is a crocodile chasing a pygmee. In the centre is a river boat, transporting amphorae. Two poles may have supported a canopy. In the centre of the boat are a few remains of a naked figure. Here an erotic scene of a woman and a pygmee may have been depicted. In room 4 is the mosaic that gave the building its modern name: Neptune is depicted in a chariot drawn by hippocampi. He is surrounded by marine creatures: dolphins, tritons, and Nereids on sea-monsters. In the room to the south (3) is a mosaic with Neptune's wife, Amphitrite, on a hippocampus. She is accompanied by Hymenaeus (a winged Eros with a torch, referring to marriage) and tritons.

To the north is frigidarium 5, with two basins with niches for statues. In the entrance to the eastern basin are two granite columns. On the floor we see Nereids, tritons and Scylla, striking with an oar. In the transitional room 6 is a later white mosaic with small symbols (see the figure below). These are Christian symbols, for which parallels are known. Becatti suggests that the mosaic may be dated to the second half of the third century or the first half of the fourth ("in un periodo in cui ancora non v'era stato un pieno riconoscimento ufficale della nuova religione, ma il cristianesimo era già profondamente infiltrato nella società romana").



The Christian symbols in room 6 (not in their original position). From SO IV, fig. 17.
Top row:
  • Grapes (a symbol of heaven).
  • An 8, the number M (the life cycle of the phoenix, referring to the resurrection).
  • Grapes (a symbol of heaven).
  • The Greek letter chi (initial of Christ).
  • A vessel below the letter I (initial of Christ).
  • Swastika with the Greek letter rho (symbol of the cross).
  • A schematic branch of a palm tree.
  • A heart-shaped leaf.
  • Bottom row:
  • The word IESVS, four times.
  • The Greek letter chi (initial of Christ).
  • A cross and the Greek letter chi (initial of Christ).
  • The Greek letters iota and chi (initials of Jesus Christ), a heart-shaped leaf, two black ovals (the number M, the life cycle of the phoenix), the letter R (of resurrectio), a phoenix (referring to the resurrection).
  • The letters RE and LE.
  • Rooms 7 and 8 are tepidaria, room 9 is a caldarium with two basins. Room 10 was also a caldarium, that was later abandoned. To the north-west and north-east of room 10 are furnaces. To the west is a large palaestra, surrounded on three sides by a portico with marble columns. In the ground are blocks of travertine, with holes in which apparatus related to sport were attached. In room 12 is a mosaic with naked athletes: two boxers with spiked gloves, two pancratiasts (boxers-wrestlers) and a wrestler have been preserved. The position of the mosaic, next to the palaestra, is significant. Behind the porticus, to the west of the palaestra, is an accentuated room (13). Against the back wall of this room is the base of a statue, probably of Sabina, Hadrian's wife, with the symbols of Ceres. In the north-west corner of the building is latrine 14. Below the palaestra is an older, huge cistern (36 x 26 metres), that was abandoned when the Hadrianic baths were built. Between the palaestra and the heated rooms is service passage 15. In the north-east corner were upper cisterns (16).


    Photographs



    The palaestra seen from the south-east. Photograph: Melissa Sellers.


    Room 13 with the statue of Sabina (?), seen from the south-east. Photograph: Melissa Sellers.


    The Nilotic scene in latrine 2. From SO IV, Tav. CXVIII.


    Room 4 with the mosaic of Neptune, seen from the south-west. Photograph: Jan Theo Bakker.


    The result of cleaning the mosaic in room 4. Photograph: Bjorg Omholt.


    The mosaic of Neptune in room 4. From SO IV, Tav. CXXIV.


    Detail of the mosaic of Neptune. Photograph: Jos Janssen.


    The mosaic of Amphitrite in room 3. From SO IV, Tav. CXXXII.


    Frigidarium 5 seen from the south-west. Photograph: Jan Theo Bakker.


    Frigidarium 5 seen from the west. Photograph: Jan Theo Bakker.


    The mosaic of Scylla in frigidarium 5. From SO IV, Tav. CXXXV.


    A triton in frigidarium 5. From SO IV, Tav. CXXXVI.


    Mosaic with athletes in room 12: general view. From SO IV, Tav. CXI.


    Mosaic with athletes in room 12: boxers. Photograph: Eric Taylor.


    Mosaic with athletes in room 12: detail of left boxer.
    Photograph: Eric Taylor.



    Mosaic with athletes in room 12: detail of right boxer.
    Photograph: Eric Taylor.



    Mosaic with athletes in room 12: detail of wrestler. Photograph: Eric Taylor.


    Mosaic with athletes in room 12: detail of pancratiasts. Photograph: Eric Taylor.


    The cistern below the palaestra. Photograph: Jan Theo Bakker.


    A basin to the east of room 16, on the street, seen from the south-east.
    The sloping ramp supported a pipe connected with an upper basin.

    Photograph: Jan Theo Bakker.

    [jthb - 19-May-2006; for this page I would like to thank Bjorg Omholt and Margareta Strand]