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Bringing order to a battlefield.

Almost all ruins of Ostia Antica were unearthed in the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. The first systematic excavations, initiated by pope Pius VII, were carried out by Petrini in the years 1801-1805. More or less structural activities began once more in 1855, under the auspices of pope Pius IX. The excavators were Pietro Ercole and Carlo Ludovico Visconti. From 1870 the excavations were continued by Pietro Rosa and Rodolfo Lanciani. Truly scientific research started in 1907 by Dante Vaglieri, who died in 1913. He was succeeded by Guido Calza. Calza died in 1946. After the Second World War a few more buildings were excavated, such as the Synagogue, and many small trenches were dug.

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Plan of the excavations
1 Degradation and consolidation
2 The final phase of Ostia
3 Abandoned and destroyed buildings
4 The late-antique raising of Ostia
5 The two faces of late-antique Ostia
6 The reuse of materials in late antiquity
7 Destruction of pagan monuments by Christians
8 From late antiquity to the Middle Ages
9 From the 11th to the early 19th century
10 From the 11th to the early 19th century (continued)
11 The lime-kilns
12 The 19th century
13 The early 20th century
14 The early 20th century: Dante Vaglieri
15 1914 - 1937
16 The excavations for the Esposizione Universale
di Roma (EUR): 1938 - 1942
17 Restorations
18 Restorations (continued)
19 Restorations (continued)
20 From the Second World War until the present day

Acknowledgements:
Stefano Stani (Soprintendenza Archeologica di Ostia)
Paola Olivanti (Soprintendenza Archeologica di Ostia)
All photographs marked "SAOA [neg.nr.]": © Archivio Fotografico Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici di Ostia
Letter by the Soprintendente