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Regio II - Insula VII - Oratorio cristiano (II,VII,1)

To the south-east of the theatre are the scanty remains of a little Christian chapel, excavated in 1910 by Vaglieri. The area in which it was built, marked E on the plan, had a long and complex history. Nymphaeum II,VII,7 (B) was a decorative feature from the first three centuries AD. Other constructions in the area (C, D) were razed to the ground. In the late fourth or early fifth century a roughly triangular area was created, flanked to the south by columns, to the west by the theatre, to the north by two columns (on of which is on top of a street), and to the east by block II,VI. The level of this area was raised considerably and covered with many small pieces of marble.

Plan of the chapel

Plan of the chapel and its surroundings. Vaglieri 1914, Tav. IV.

The chapel (A) was also at a very high level. Part of an apse and a bit of wall to the east have been preserved, made of pieces of tufa, travertine and marble. It must have been approximately nine metres long. Some masonry (opus vittatum) has been dated to the sixth to eighth century AD. The chapel was built on top of nymphaeum II,VII,7 and on streets. Human bones, sarcophagi and fragments of sarcophagi were found around the chapel and below the floor. The sarcophagi are all from an earlier period. All these remains were found rather confused, but according to the excavator at least some of it belongs to proper burials on this spot, in reused sarcophagi.

One sarcophagus is presumably Christian. It has a central relief of Orpheus as Pastor Bonus (Good Shepherd), reliefs of a man and a woman on the corners, and on the lid the inscription:

HIC
QVIRIACVS
DORMIT IN PACE

"Here Quiriacus is sleeping in peace". The sarcophagus, still in situ, was made in the third or early fourth century. The inscription on the lid, now in the store-rooms, might be from the fifth century. Who was this Quiriacus, whose sarcophagus was within the city walls? During the reign of Claudius II Gothicus, in 269 AD, a bishop of Ostia, Cyriacus, was executed in Ostia, together with seventeen converted soldiers. The soldiers were beheaded ad arcum ante theatrum ("near the arch in front of the Theatre"), clearly the Arch of Caracalla. Cyriacus was executed on the same spot, or in prison. The sarcophagus with the relief of Orpheus must have been transferred to the spot of the executions in late antiquity, to hold the bones of the martyr, who had also been buried outside the city. And at that time the lid with the inscription referring to Cyriacus (Quiriacus) was added.

The triangular area mentioned above may have been a forerunner of the chapel, an earlier monumentalization in honour of the martyrs. A nymphaeum to the east (II,VI,2) may in reality have been a related baptistery.

The chapel was visited for many centuries. As late as 1162 AD the faithful went to the ecclesia Sancti Ciriaci extra villam. They came from Gregoriopolis, modern Ostia Antica, and followed the old Via Ostiensis and Decumanus Maximus. But by now the tombs and buildings flanking the road were half-buried ruins. From some point in time the chapel was forgotten and neglected. Perhaps the bones of Cyriacus were transferred to Rome.

For the Christian tradition built up around this area see F.A. Bauer, "Stadtbild und Heiligenlegende. Die Christianisierung Ostias in der spaetantiken Gedankenwelt", Die spaetantike Stadt und ihre Christianisierung (G. Brands - H.G. Severin edd.), 2003, 43-62.


Photographs



The remains of the chapel seen from the Decumanus, from the south-east.
Two modern inscriptions are in and to the right of the apse.
Photograph: Jan Theo Bakker.



The outer west wall of the chapel, seen from the west.
The column belongs to the nymphaeum below the chapel. Photograph: Jan Theo Bakker.



The sarcophagus of Cyriacus. Photograph: Jan Theo Bakker.


The sarcophagus of Cyriacus, detail of the good shepherd.
Photograph: Laura Maish-Bill Storage.



The two northern columns of the late-antique triangular area,
preserved at the original height. Seen from the south-west.
Photograph: Jan Theo Bakker.

[jthb - 21-Sep-2007]